Streamline English Directions is a course for upper intermediate students of English. It is designed either to follow on from Streamline English Departures, Connections and Destinations, or as an independent course for students of varying backgrounds.
Streamline English Directions revises and consolidates the basic structures and vocabulary that students will have met on pre-intermediate and intermediate courses, and extends their linguistic and communicative competence by means of imaginatively presented written as well as spoken texts, and fully integrated creative language tasks. Students who complete this course successfully will be familiar with the language required by the Cambridge First Certificate in English.
The material consists of 60 units. Each unit is clearly laid out on a separate page and is attractively illustrated in full-colour with drawings or photographs.
This Teacher's Edition contains all the student's material interleaved with detailed teaching notes, and comprehensive suggestions on how to present each new topic. There is also a recording of the dialogues and texts on cassette, and two Workbooks to provide further practice material. Integrated notes on how to use the Workbooks are also included in this Teacher's Edition.
Also available: Streamline English Departures for beginners
Streamline English Connections for pre-intermediate students Streamline English Destinations for intermediate students
Features of the English language
English has changed so much in the last 1500 years that it would now be hardly recognizable to the Anglo-Saxons who brought the language across the North Sea. Although they would be able to recognize many individual words, they would not recognize the way those words are put together to make sentences. Old English, like modern German, was a highly inflected language, i.e. most words changed their endings or forms to show their relationship to other words in the sentence according to number (singular, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, neuter), case (subject, object), tense (past, future) etc. Some modern English words still inflect, but much less so than in other European languages. The English verb ‘to ride’ inflects into five forms (ride, rides, riding, rode, ridden) whereas rhe equivalent German verb has sixteen forms. The English word ‘the’ has only one form, whereas other European languages would have several different forms. The trend towards simplicity of form is considered to be a strength of English. Another strength is the flexibility of function of individual words. Look at these uses of the word ‘round’:
There was a round table, (adjective) He bought a round of drinks, (noun) He turned round, (adverb)
He ran round the field, (preposition) The car tried to round the bend too quickly, (verb)
This flexibility, together with a flexibility towards the assimilation of words borrowed from other languages and the spontaneous crea.tion
of new words have made English what it is today, an effective medium of international communication. English has achieved this in spite of the difficulties caused by written English, which is not systematically phonetic.
Some loan words
Arabic admiral, algebra, mattress Spanish mosquito, cigar, canyon Italian piano, violin, spaghetti Dutch yacht, boss, deck Hindi pyjamas, shampoo, bungalow
Turkish yoghurt, kiosk Japanese tycoon, karate Malay bamboo, compound Nahuatl (Aztec) tomato, chocolate Quechua (Inca) coca, quinine Hungarian coach, paprika Classical Greek theatre, astronomy, logic
Russian vodka, sputnik Finnish sauna Chinese tea, silk Portuguese marmalade Eskimo anorak Czech robot Farsi (Iranian) lilac Basque bizarre Carib canoe
Australian Aborigine kangaroo boomerang
Modern French rendezvous, café Modern German kindergarten
Some ‘created’ words xerox, to xerox, xeroxed a hoover, to hoover, hoovered mackintosh, sandwich, submarine, helicopter, pop, rock’n roll, x-ray, astronaut, hot dog.