Commandant. Under the Caliphate the Wali acted also as Prefect of Police (the Indian Fanjd�r), who is now called “Z�bit.” The older name for the latter was “S�hib al-Shartah” (=chief of the watch) or “Mutawalli”; and it was his duty to go the rounds in person. The old “Charley,” with his lantern and cudgel, still guards the bazaars in Damascus. [FN#508] Arab. “Al-Mash� il�” = the bearer of a cresses (Mash’al) who was also Jack Ketch. In Anglo-India the name is given to a lower body-servant. The “Mash’al” which Lane (M. E., chaps. vi.) calls “Mesh’al” and illustrates, must not be confounded with its congener the “Sha’ilah” or link (also lamp, wick, etc.). [FN#509] I need hardly say that the civilised “drop” is unknown to the East where men are strung up as to a yardarm. This greatly prolongs the suffering. [FN#510] Arab. “Lukmah”; = a mouthful. It is still the fashion amongst Easterns of primitive manners to take up a handful of rice, etc., ball it and put it into a friend’s mouth honoris caus�. When the friend is a European the expression of his face is generally a study. [FN#511] I need hardly note that this is an old Biblical practice. The ass is used for city-work as the horse for fighting and travelling, the mule for burdens and the dromedary for the desert. But the Badawi, like the Indian, despises the monture and sings:— The back of the steed is a noble place But the mule’s dishonour, the ass disgrace!