barbarised Arabs, like the present population of Meccah and Al-Medinah. Besides these there are other tribes whose origin is still unknown, such as the Mahrah tribes of Hazramaut, the “Akhd�m” (=serviles) of Oman (Maskat); and the “Ebn�” of Al-Yaman: Ibn Ishak supposes the latter to be descended from the Persian soldiers of Anushirwan who expelled the Abyssinian invader from Southern Arabia. (Pilgrimage, m., 31, etc.) [FN#201] Arab. “Am�r al-Muumin�n.” The title was assumed by the Caliph Omar to obviate the inconvenience of calling himself “Khal�fah” (successor) of the Khal�fah of the Apostle of Allah (i.e. Abu Bakr); which after a few generations would become impossible. It means “Emir (chief or prince) of the Muumins,” men who hold to the (true Moslem) Faith, the “Im�n” (theory, fundamental articles) as opposed to the “D�n,” ordinance or practice of the religion. It once became a Wazirial time conferred by Sultan Malikshah (King King-king) on his Niz�m al-Murk. (Richardson’s Dissert. [viii.) [FN#202] This may also mean “according to the seven editions of the Koran ” the old revisions and so forth (Sale, Sect. iii. and D’Herbelot “Alcoran.”) The schools of the “Mukri,” who teach the right pronunciation wherein a mistake might be sinful, are seven, Harnzah, Ibn Kat�r, Ya’ak�b, Ibn Amir, Kis�i, Asim and Hafs, the latter being the favourite with the Hanafis and the only one now generally known in Al-Islam.